Clostridium organisms initiate sporulation in response to unfavorable environmental conditions. The sporulation process is regulated by a complex control cascade involving numerous sigma factors, proteases, and phosphatases. Clostridia contain all of the major sporulation-specific transcription and sigma factors found in Bacillus (sigE, sigF, sigG, sigH, sigK, spo0A). However, the regulation and activation-mechanisms for these transcription factors differs from Bacillus and even among other Clostridium species.


Selected Publications

The Clostridium sporulation programs: diversity and preservation of endospore differentiation
MA Al-Hinai, SW Jones, ET Papoutsakis
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 79 (1), 19-37

σK of Clostridium acetobutylicum is the first known sporulation-specific sigma factor with two developmentally separated roles, one early and one late in sporulation
MA Al-Hinai, SW Jones, ET Papoutsakis
Journal of bacteriology 196 (2), 287-299

SpoIIE is necessary for asymmetric division, sporulation, and expression of σF, σE, and σG but does not control solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824
C Bi, SW Jones, DR Hess, BP Tracy, ET Papoutsakis
Journal of bacteriology 193 (19), 5130-5137


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